Rooftop heliports are characterized by limited space, close proximity to the vertical
surfaces of buildings
or structures (such as parking garages), and a relatively high surrounding ambient light level.
The pad itself may be dark in contrast to the surrounding city lights. These heliports are normally located
in the midst of large numbers of point-source lights on city streets, buildings, and signs.
Nowadays, elevated heliports represent 90% of heliports.
Visual aids for night operations consist of:
· beacon light: to provide long-range and clear visual guidance in midst of surrounding lights;
· floodlights: to display obstacles and, as far as practicable, in a manner so as not to dazzle pilots;
· FATO lights: to be placed along the edges of the FATO (Final approach and take-off area);
· TLOF lights: to be placed along the edges of the TLOF (Touchdown and lift-off area);
· approaching lights (optional); to display the preferred direction of approach;
· windsock light: to display windsock and wind direction;